disorders of puberty delayed puberty

12Feb, 2024

Third party reproduction (TPR)

According to American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), TPR is the use of egg, sperms or embryos that have been donated by a 3rd person (donor) to enable an infertile individual couple (intended recipients) to become parents. A surrogate is also a 3rd party.

Types of TPR

  1. Egg donation sperm donation
  2. Embryo donation for adoption
  3. Surrogacy
  4. Posthumous reproduction

Issues associated with TPR

  1. Social issues - Several cultural, religious, and personal beliefs influence the decision of the intending couple while accepting various modalities of ART, However, TPR allows the couple to have a baby and escape a societal stigma.
  2. Legal issues - There exists a complex mixture of money and power between both the parties and also the agency that provide the donors or surrogate. Many a times, the donors and surrogates are under-privileged and there is the possibility that they may be exploited. There can also exist several misunderstanding and confusion over the understanding of the contract, leading to legal hassles later. In India ART act was published in December 2021 and was enforced from January 2022.
  3. Psychological and ethical issues - There exists significant psychological issues for all parties involved. Partners of surrogates and her children are also affected. The confidentiality clause has to be maintained according to the requirement strictly.
  4. New kinship patterns - With 3rd party reproduction, there exist genetic mothers, mother who bears the baby and another who raises the child. So, is multiple motherhood acceptable? Patterns can get complex with inter-generational gamete donation.
    With TPR, the scope of motherhood has widened to include same-sex couple with off-springs of lesbian couple having double legal mothers.

Protocol for TPR

  1. Counselling of intended/commissioning couple/woman.
  2. Ascertaining 3rd party donor/surrogate
  3. Counselling of TP donor/surrogate
  4. Screening of intending couple/woman.
  5. Screening of third-party donor/surrogate.
  6. Consents of all parties.
  7. Legal compliance and clearance.
  8. Provision of ART keeping the safety and confidentiality of TP donors/surrogates in mind.

Are there any alternatives to TPR?

TPR Possible alternative
Donor egg/sperm In Vitro Gametes through stem cells
Donor egg/sperm Pre-implantation Genetic testing
Donor egg Ovarian transplant
Surrogacy Uterine transplant
Surrogacy Autologous bone marrow derived stem cell therapy (BMSC)

Also look up - “Third Part Reproduction-Egg donation

For more information, good practice points and academic excellence, please log onto www.medlineacademics.com and enrol into our FRM (Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine) course.

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