The 5Ws and 1H of infertility and IVF

05 Sep, 2022

The 5Ws and 1H of infertility and IVF


infertility couple

Infertility is the inability of a couple to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse. IVF or In-Vitro Fertilization is a procedure where the oocyte and the sperm are fused outside the body of the female patient.

ICSI or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection is the procedure where a sperm is injected into the cytoplasm of an oocyte using a device called micromanipulator. A Micromanipulator is a combination of a specialised Microscope and a Manipulator which includes holding pipette and an injecting needle.

ivf laboratory

OPU or ovum pickup is a procedure where the oocytes are retrieved from the ovaries of the patient.

ET or embryo transfer is a procedure where a day 3 or a day 5 embryo is transferred into the body of the patient.

Medline academics is the best online, offline and hybrid learning platform which has courses of different levels for clinicians and life science students who aspire to become an infertility specialist or an embryologist.

IUI or Intrauterine insemination is a procedure where ejaculated sperms are washed and prepared sperms are inseminated directly into the uterus of a female body.

OCC or oocyte cumulus complex are freshly retrieved oocytes with cumulus around them.

Denudation is a process of removing the cumulus from around the oocyte using enzymatic methods.

embryology lab sample


Medline academics provides the best training both theoretically and practically to face real patients.

They have come up with the freshest, most innovative and the most convenient form of learning called the hybrid learning platform where the theoretical aspects are taught online through premade classes made by the experts in the field and you will be called for hands on training and clarification of doubts to their centre. They have numerous clinical attachments in Bangalore and also encourage doing the clinical practice at your place of convenience that has a well-equipped IVF laboratory and an operation theatre all over India.

Infertility can be caused due to numerous reasons



Polycystic ovaries have altered hormonal regulations of menstrual cycle and produce more than one oocyte per cycle. This is a highly treatable condition in infertility.

Thyroid problems

thyroid problems

Low levels of thyroid hormone released can alter the development of follicles and ovulation. This again is treatable

Premature ovarian failure

premature ovarian failure

This is a condition where one or both ovaries fail to function before the age of 40.

Scarring from surgery

Many surgeries performed on the uterus may alter its functioning

Cervical mucous problems

Cervical mucous might not have the essential environment to support the movement and capacitation of a sperm which could be the cause of not being able to conceive.



Fibroids may cause infertility by obstructing the fallopian tubes and restricting gamete transport.



Endometriosis is a disorder in which tissue similar to the tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. This may obstruct the path of the sperms or the embryos.


Chemotherapy both in males and females causes damage to the gametes. Thus, it is always advised to go with fertility preservation before the treatment.

Abnormal semen parameters


The count motility and morphology of the sperms are the main semen parameters and lesser the magnitude of these parameters, more difficult it is to conceive.

Problem in the testis


Infections, irregular descent or cryptorchidism, varicocele etc are few problems in testis that may cause abnormal sperm production.

Ejaculatory disorders

ejaculatory disorders

Erectile dysfunction- clinical and psychological could be the reason for less or no semen ejaculation.

Retrograde ejaculation is a condition where the semen enters the urinary bladder after ejaculation.

Congenital disorders

congenital disorders

Many congenital disorders like Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, etc could be the reason for infertility.

Unexplained infertility

congenital disorders

Sometimes if none of the above problems exist, the couple still struggles to conceive, this could be due to immunological reasons where the sperms are treated as an enemy by the female body due to the presence of Anti-sperm antibodies or ASAs.


fertility specialist

A Fertility specialist is a doctor who deals with infertile and sub-fertile patients

An embryologist is a specialised technician who handles an IVF laboratory

fertility nurse

A fertility nurse is a nurse trained to work in an IVF operation theatre assisting the procedures like OPU, ET and fertility enhancing surgeries.

Medline academics is the brainchild of the pioneer in the field of infertility Dr Kamini A Rao whose guidance is highly valued and recognised all over the world.


Level 1 fertility clinics - perform semen analysis and IUI
Level 2 fertility clinics - either a sperm bank or a clinic that stores cryopreserved gametes and also performs IUI
Level 3 fertility clinics - well equipped embryology lab attached to an operation theatre

Medline academics is located in Bangalore near Mantri mall, Malleshwaram.

Most theoretical aspects of every course is covered online and can be completed at your own convenience.


egg freezing

A couple who has tried conceiving without contraception for more than a year they can visit a fertility specialist

A person undergoing chemotherapy can visit a fertility centre to store his or her gametes before the treatment

IVF is usually advised after multiple IUI cycles for a young couple with good male and female factors or unexplained infertility

The most modern concept of fertility preservation is getting popular where women and men freeze their gametes in response to career demands

Medline academics is a new company launched driven by the power of being the best. Online courses can be taken whenever the student wishes to while hybrid and offline courses are scheduled at regular intervals.


ovary vector

A fertility specialist retrieves oocytes from the female body performing a procedure called OPU.

icsi training

The oocytes are screened for in an embryology laboratory and transferred into a culture dish

Oocytes are then denuded to remove the cumulus around them to perform ICSI

icsi procedure

Oocytes are then injected with selected sperms under a micromanipulator held by a holding pipette and injected using an injecting needle.

Further the injected oocytes are transferred into a culture dish and incubated.

Embryos are then monitored by grading at regular intervals or by using an embryoscope.


Best looking embryos are then transferred into the uterus by a procedure called ET

et procedure

Medline academics prepares its online classes by making the best scientists and doctors of the field prepare the classes ensuring best quality and highly researched information

They provide platform for interaction with the best faculty

They have clinical attachments all over Bangalore and encourage practicing at a we equipped place of the student’s choice making it the most convenient form of learning while compromising least amount of time from your work schedule.

Embryo biopsy is performed to send the embryos for preimplantation genetic testing to check for any chromosomal abnormalities before transferring the embryos.

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